Tetrapod Tracks on Valentia Island


Imagine stumbling upon the earliest footprints that are 385 million years old, etched into rock on a serene Irish island. These aren’t just any footprints; they belong to some of the earliest creatures that dared to venture from water to land. Valentia Island is home to one of the world’s most ancient and remarkable fossil discoveries: the tetrapod tracks.

Veiw from Coonanaspig of Valentia
View from Coonanaspig of Valentia Island

In 1993, a student uncovered these prehistoric marks. This discovery not only catapulted Ireland into the paleontological spotlight but also provided a crucial piece of the puzzle in understanding the evolution of life on Earth.

Join me as we delve into the fascinating history, scientific significance, and ongoing conservation efforts surrounding the Valentia Island tetrapod tracks. Whether you’re a seasoned geologist, a curious traveller, or just someone who loves a good story, these ancient footprints will leave you in awe of our planet’s incredible history.

The Tetrapods: Pioneers of Land

What Are Tetrapods?

Tetrapod coming out of the sea

Tetrapods were the earliest land-dwelling vertebrates, representing a crucial evolutionary step from water to land. These amphibian-like creatures possessed four limbs, allowing them to venture beyond the sea. On Valentia Island, they left behind historical footprints in the mud, along with faint impressions of their long tails.

Preservation and Discovery:

Over millions of years, the muddy shore solidified into rock, preserving these ancient markings.

In 1993, an undergraduate geology student stumbled upon these fossilized footprints on the northeast side of Valentia Island.

The Tracks

Appearance and Details: The tetrapod tracks on Valentia Island are a series of fossilized footprints preserved in Devonian sandstone. They are characterized by distinct impressions left by the limbs of these early vertebrates.

The tracks show a clear pattern of alternating left and right footprints, indicative of a creature with four limbs.

Size and Shape: Each footprint measures approximately 15 to 20 centimeters in length, with distinct impressions of toes. The stride length, or the distance between successive footprints, varies but suggests a slow, deliberate movement.

The tracks also display a clear central groove, which is believed to be the mark left by the animal’s dragging tail or belly.

Scientific Importance

Evolutionary Significance

Transitional Fossils: The Valentia Island tetrapod tracks are some of the earliest evidence of vertebrates making the monumental transition from water to land. This transition is a key chapter in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, marking the move from aquatic to terrestrial environments.

Understanding Tetrapod Evolution: These tracks provide concrete evidence of the anatomy and movement of early tetrapods, offering insights into how these creatures adapted to life on land. This includes the development of limbs capable of supporting their body weight and the evolution of respiratory systems suitable for air breathing.

Paleontological Breakthrough

Oldest Known Tracks: Dating back approximately 385 million years to the middle Devonian period, these tracks predate most known tetrapod fossils. This makes them among the oldest known evidence of four-limbed vertebrates walking on land, pushing back the timeline for when scientists believe this transition occurred.

Filling Gaps in the Fossil Record: Fossils from the middle Devonian period are relatively rare. The Valentia Island tracks help fill significant gaps in the fossil record, providing direct evidence of tetrapod activity and behaviour during this period.

Comparative Studies

Global Significance: The Valentia Island tracks are compared with other significant tetrapod trackway discoveries around the world, such as those in Poland and Australia. These comparisons help scientists build a more comprehensive picture of early tetrapod evolution and dispersal.

Variation in Tetrapod Development: Studying tracks from different regions allows scientists to examine variations in early tetrapod development, offering insights into how these creatures adapted to diverse environments.

Conservation Efforts

Importance of Conservation

Scientific Value: The tetrapod trackway on Valentia Island are of immense scientific value, providing critical insights into the evolution of early terrestrial vertebrates. Preserving these tracks ensures that they remain available for ongoing and future research.

There is a fence so you can view them but please don’t go down to look at them more closely.

Educational and Cultural Significance: These tracks are not just scientific artifacts; they are part of Ireland’s natural heritage, attracting tourists and educating the public about the country’s ancient past.

Protection Measures

Legal Protection: The tetrapod track site is protected under Irish law, specifically designated as a Natural Heritage Area (NHA). This status provides a legal framework to safeguard the tracks from any activities that could damage them.

Physical Barriers: To prevent direct damage from foot traffic and erosion, barriers and pathways have been established around the track site. These measures help control visitor access, ensuring that the tracks are not accidentally damaged.

Public Awareness and Education

Educational Programs: Local schools and universities often conduct field trips to the site, educating students about its importance and the need for conservation.

Information Boards: Information boards at the site itself explain the history, scientific importance, and conservation efforts in place.


Natural erosion and the impacts of climate change pose ongoing challenges to the conservation of the tracks. Increased storm activity and rising sea levels could potentially threaten the site.

Directions to the Tetrapod Tracks on Valentia

It is located on the north-facing side of Valentia Island at the foot of Geokaun Mountain, to the west of Valentia Lighthouse. The car park is 250 meters from the tetrapod tracks.

Unfortunately, individuals using wheelchairs would encounter significant difficulties navigating this path to see the tracks.

Before you go

1. If there is a very large swell in the sea, you might not be able to see the actual tracks.


2. Wear warm clothing such as a windbreaker jacket since it can get very cold due to the proximity to the sea.

3. Stay behind the railing and do not go down to get a closer look at the tracks. Sometimes, a freak wave comes in and covers the tracks. When the wave recedes, it can wash you into the sea.

4. Most of all it is FREE to visit the fossilized tracks.


The Tetrapod footprints found on Valentia Island serve as a poignant reminder of a pivotal juncture in the evolutionary timeline.

These remarkable imprints symbolize the bold leap taken by early creatures from water to land, marking the beginning of a transformative era in the Earth’s narrative.

By studying and marvelling at these ancient traces, we pay tribute to the intrepid explorers and acknowledge the intricate evolutionary processes that have sculpted the diverse and vibrant world we inhabit today.